Onchocerciasis

Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection that primarily affects the skin and eyes, leading to severe itching, skin disfigurement, and potentially blindness, greatly impacting the quality of life and economic productivity in endemic areas.

Causative Agent and Transmission: Onchocerciasis is caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blackflies (Simulium spp.), which breed in fast-flowing rivers and streams, primarily in Africa, as well as in some parts of Central and South America and the Middle East. The blackflies breed in fast-flowing rivers and streams, mostly in remote villages located near fertile land where people rely on agriculture.

Lifecycle and Infection: Once the larvae are transmitted to humans, they mature into adult worms within subcutaneous nodules in the body. These adults can live for up to 15 years. Female worms produce thousands of microscopic larvae (microfilariae) that migrate through the skin and eyes.

Skin Manifestations: The skin becomes heavily infested with the larvae, leading to severe itching, rashes, and skin discoloration. Over time, chronic skin changes such as thickening and loss of elasticity (often called "lizard skin") can occur.

Eye Disease and Blindness: One of the most severe effects of Onchocerciasis is eye disease, which can lead to visual impairment and ultimately blindness. The larvae migrate to the eyes, causing inflammation in different parts of the eye, leading to lesions on the cornea and, eventually, to irreversible blindness.

Nodules under the Skin: The presence of adult worms is often marked by palpable nodules under the skin, usually non-painful. These nodules can be surgically removed to reduce the number of circulating larvae.

Socio-Economic Impact: Like lymphatic filariasis, Onchocerciasis has significant social and economic impacts, especially in affected rural communities. The risk of blindness can hinder the ability to work and lead to increased dependency within communities.

Prevention and Control: Efforts to control Onchocerciasis focus on eliminating the blackfly vector through insecticide spraying and on mass drug administration, mainly with ivermectin, which kills the larvae, and prevents blindness.

Global Health Initiatives: There have been significant efforts by global health organizations to control and aim for the elimination of Onchocerciasis, especially in Africa. These programs have had considerable success in reducing the incidence of the disease and the associated blindness.

275 maps found/sites/default/files/upload/ESPEN_NTD_Data_Dictionary.xlsx
Region Program stage Yearssort ascending Portrait PDFs Landscape PDFs Data
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity 2020 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity 2020 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity 2020 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity 2020 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity 2020 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map png

Pages

2205 maps found/sites/default/files/upload/ESPEN_NTD_Data_Dictionary.xlsx
Region Location Program stage Yearssort ascending Portrait PDFs Landscape PDFs Data
Western Africa Burkina Faso MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Tanzania (Mainland) MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Mozambique MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Malawi MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Eritrea MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Zambia MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Niger MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mauritania Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cape Verde MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Botswana MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Tanzania (Zanzibar) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Zimbabwe MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa South Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Central African Republic MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Zambia MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Equatorial Guinea MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Gabon Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Lesotho MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Lesotho Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Rwanda MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Liberia MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Eritrea MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Kenya MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Burkina Faso MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Sao Tome & Principe MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Republic of Congo MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Eritrea Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Kenya Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mauritania MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Gabon MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Ethiopia MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cote d'Ivoire MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Angola MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Seychelles MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Sao Tome & Principe MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa South Africa MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mauritania MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa eSwatini MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cape Verde MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Tanzania (Zanzibar) MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cote d'Ivoire MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea-Bissau MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Algeria MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Central African Republic Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Namibia Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Burundi MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Tanzania (Zanzibar) MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Namibia MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mali MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Democratic Republic of the Congo MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Rwanda MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Mozambique Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea-Bissau MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Chad MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Zimbabwe MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Gabon MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Zambia MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Sao Tome & Principe MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Madagascar MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa eSwatini MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Kenya MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Burundi MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Southern Africa Namibia MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Western Africa Sierra Leone MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Senegal MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Mozambique MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cape Verde MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Zambia Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Chad Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Mauritius Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Mauritius MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Gabon MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Central African Republic MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Equatorial Guinea MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Liberia MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Comoros MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Cameroon MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Niger MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mauritania MDA/PC rounds (Historical MDA) 2000 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Uganda MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Democratic Republic of the Congo MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf

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