Soil-transmitted helminthiasis

Soil-transmitted helminthiases are caused by parasitic worms and are widespread in areas with inadequate sanitation. They primarily affect the intestines, leading to a range of health issues, with the most severe impacts on children. Control and prevention efforts focus on improving hygiene and sanitation, as well as regular deworming treatments.

Causative Agents: The main worms causing soil-transmitted helminthiases are roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale). These parasites are prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and are primarily transmitted through soil contaminated with human feces.

Transmission and Lifecycle: Infection occurs when people ingest eggs (in the case of roundworm and whipworm) or larvae (in the case of hookworms) present in contaminated soil. These can be ingested directly or through contaminated food. For hookworms, infection can also occur when larvae penetrate the skin. Once inside the body, the worms live in the intestines, mature, and reproduce, releasing their eggs or larvae in feces, which can then contaminate the soil.

Symptoms and Impact on Health: The severity of symptoms depends on the worm burden. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, blood in stool (particularly with hookworms), malnutrition, and in severe cases, physical and cognitive growth retardation in children. Hookworms can cause chronic intestinal blood loss leading to anemia.

Epidemiology: Soil-transmitted helminthiases are among the most common infections worldwide, affecting the poorest and most deprived communities. They are particularly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions where sanitation and hygiene are poor.

Prevention and Control: Effective prevention involves improving sanitation and hygiene practices, including the use of proper toilets and handwashing. Regular deworming through mass drug administration (MDA) in at-risk populations, especially children, is a key strategy for control.

Treatment: The treatment involves the administration of safe and effective medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole, which can kill the worms. These medications are often distributed in mass deworming campaigns, particularly targeting children and women of reproductive age (15 - 49 years) in endemic areas.

Global Health Efforts: These infections are a major focus of global health initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of neglected tropical diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) and various NGOs work towards the control and elimination of soil-transmitted helminthiases through integrated measures including mass drug administration, improved sanitation, and health education.

440 maps found/sites/default/files/upload/ESPEN_NTD_Data_Dictionary.xlsx
Region Program stage Years Portrait PDFs Landscape PDFs Data
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2022 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent Endemicity 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2013 - 2021 Download map png Download map png

Pages

3745 maps found/sites/default/files/upload/ESPEN_NTD_Data_Dictionary.xlsx
Region Location Program stage Years Portrait PDFs Landscape PDFs Data
Western Africa Liberia Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Ethiopia Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa eSwatini Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Central Africa Burundi MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Senegal MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Democratic Republic of the Congo MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Eastern Africa Seychelles MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Western Africa Sierra Leone MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Botswana MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Southern Africa Mozambique MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Western Africa Nigeria MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Central Africa Sao Tome & Principe MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Botswana MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cape Verde MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Eastern Africa Kenya MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Eastern Africa Comoros Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Mozambique Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Botswana MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Southern Africa Mozambique MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Southern Africa South Africa MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage - Total population requiring treatment) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Western Africa Sierra Leone Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa South Africa Endemicity 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Tanzania (Zanzibar) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage - SAC) 2022 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf

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