Trachoma

Trachoma is a blinding disease caused by particular strains of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Trachoma is an infectious eye disease that can lead to blindness if left untreated. It is closely linked to poor sanitary conditions and is most prevalent in underserved rural communities. Effective control and prevention strategies include antibiotic treatment, surgery for advanced cases, and broader improvements in hygiene and sanitation.

Causative Agent: Trachoma is caused by certain serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterium that infects the conjunctiva of the eye.

Transmission: The infection is transmitted through direct contact with the eyes, eyelids, and nose or throat secretions of affected individuals. It can also be spread by flies that have come into contact with these secretions. Indirect transmission can occur through contaminated items like towels or washcloths.

Symptoms and Progression: The initial symptoms include irritation in the eyes and discharge. Repeated infections, common in endemic areas, lead to scarring of the conjunctiva. This scarring can cause the eyelids to turn inward (trichiasis), forcing the eyelashes to rub against the cornea, which is painful and can lead to corneal opacity and irreversible blindness.

Epidemiology: Trachoma is predominantly found in impoverished rural areas of Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. It is associated with poor hygiene, crowded living conditions, and limited access to water and sanitation facilities.

Prevention and Control: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the SAFE strategy for trachoma control: Surgery for trichiasis, Antibiotics to clear infection, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvement to reduce transmission. Community education and improved living conditions are critical in prevention efforts.

Treatment: The primary treatment for active trachoma infection is the antibiotic azithromycin, which is effective in clearing the infection. For advanced cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to correct trichiasis and prevent blindness.

Global Health Initiatives: Trachoma is a target of global health initiatives aiming to eliminate it as a public health problem. These efforts involve mass drug administration campaigns, surgeries for trichiasis, improvements in community hygiene, and environmental sanitation.

108 maps found/sites/default/files/upload/ESPEN_NTD_Data_Dictionary.xlsx
Regionsort descending Program stage Years Portrait PDFs Landscape PDFs Data
Western Africa Endemicity (TF) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity (TT) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity (TT) 2018 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity (TF) 2018 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity (TT) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity (TF) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2019 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity (TF) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity (TT) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa Endemicity (TF) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Western Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2018 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity (TT) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity (TF) 2018 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity (TT) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2018 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity (TF) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2019 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity (TF) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity (TF) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity (TF) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity (TT) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Southern Africa Endemicity (TT) 2018 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity (TT) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2019 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity (TF) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity (TF) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity (TT) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity (TF) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity (TF) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity (TT) 2018 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2018 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity (TT) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa Endemicity (TF) 2018 Download map png Download map png
Central Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity (TF) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity (TT) 2019 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2019 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity (TF) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity (TF) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity (TT) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity (TF) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2018 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity (TT) 2018 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity (TT) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Eastern Africa Endemicity (TF) 2018 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2016 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity (TF) 2016 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity (TT) 2018 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity (TF) 2017 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2018 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2015 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity (TT) 2016 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity (TF) 2018 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2019 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity (TT) 2019 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2019 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity (TT) 2015 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity (TF) 2015 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) Endemicity (TF) 2019 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
WHO African Region (AFRO) MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2020 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent Endemicity (TT) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent Endemicity (TT) 2015 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent Endemicity (TF) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent Endemicity (TF) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2016 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2021 Download map png Download map png
Africa Continent MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2018 Download map png Download map png

Pages

930 maps found/sites/default/files/upload/ESPEN_NTD_Data_Dictionary.xlsx
Regionsort descending Location Program stage Years Portrait PDFs Landscape PDFs Data
Western Africa Guinea-Bissau Endemicity (TF) 2013 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mali Endemicity (TT) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Niger Endemicity (TF) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia Endemicity (TF) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Algeria MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2018 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia Endemicity (TF) 2018 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Algeria Endemicity (TF) 2015 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cote d'Ivoire Endemicity (TT) 2016 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Senegal Endemicity (TT) 2015 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mauritania MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Burkina Faso MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2016 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cote d'Ivoire MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Algeria Endemicity (TF) 2018 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana Endemicity (TT) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Burkina Faso MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mauritania MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2018 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo Endemicity (TF) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea-Bissau Endemicity (TT) 2015 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Senegal MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mali MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Niger Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Niger MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2015 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2014 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mauritania MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mauritania Endemicity (TF) 2018 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia Endemicity (TF) 2014 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea Endemicity (TT) 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo Endemicity (TF) 2014 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea-Bissau Endemicity (TT) 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo Endemicity (TF) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Benin MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mali MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Algeria Endemicity (TT) 2016 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Senegal Endemicity (TT) 2016 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea-Bissau Endemicity (TT) 2014 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Benin Endemicity (TT) 2013 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea-Bissau MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Burkina Faso MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2013 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2013 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Benin MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana Endemicity (TF) 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia Endemicity (TT) 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cote d'Ivoire Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Algeria Endemicity (TF) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Niger Endemicity (TF) 2018 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana Endemicity (TF) 2016 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria Endemicity (TF) 2015 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Benin Endemicity (TF) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Niger Endemicity (TF) 2014 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mali Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria Endemicity (TF) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria Endemicity (TF) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mali MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2016 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Burkina Faso MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2015 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mali MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Niger Endemicity (TT) 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Algeria Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Burkina Faso Endemicity (TF) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana Endemicity (TF) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Niger Endemicity (TT) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Algeria Endemicity (TF) 2016 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia Endemicity (TF) 2016 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2014 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2013 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia Endemicity (TF) 2015 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mali Endemicity (TT) 2018 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mauritania Endemicity (TT) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Senegal Endemicity (TF) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia Endemicity (TT) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Benin MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2018 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo Endemicity (TF) 2018 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Benin Endemicity (TF) 2015 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mauritania MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2015 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2013 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cote d'Ivoire MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Benin Endemicity (TF) 2018 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mali Endemicity (TF) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Benin Endemicity (TF) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea Endemicity (TT) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Algeria MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Ghana Endemicity (TF) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Niger Endemicity (TF) 2016 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria Endemicity (TT) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cote d'Ivoire Endemicity (TT) 2015 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Senegal MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2010 - 2019 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2017 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2015 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2014 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Togo MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2021 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cote d'Ivoire Endemicity (TF) 2014 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf

Pages

Data download

Download data dictionary