Lymphatic filariasis

Lymphatic filariasis (LF), commonly known as elephantiasis, is a painful and profoundly disfiguring disease. In endemic countries, lymphatic filariasis has a major social and economic impact.

Causative Agents and Transmission: Lymphatic filariasis is primarily caused by three species of parasitic roundworms: Wuchereria bancrofti  (the most common, and only species present in Africa), Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. These parasites are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. Once inside the human body, the larvae develop into adult worms in the lymphatic system.

Impact on the Lymphatic System: The adult filarial worms primarily reside in the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes. Their presence can cause damage and obstruction in the lymphatic system. This damage impairs the system's ability to drain fluid properly, leading to the accumulation of lymph fluid in body tissues. Chronic inflammation caused by the immune response can lead to the thickening of the walls of the lymphatic vessels and reduced lymphatic flow.

Symptoms and Clinical Manifestations: The infection can lead to a range of medical conditions. Most notably, it can cause lymphedema (swelling) of limbs and genital disease, including hydrocele (swelling of the scrotum), chylocele, and swelling of the penis. Recurrent acute attacks are common, characterized by severe pain and fever. Over time, these symptoms can become more severe, leading to significant disfigurement and disability.

Social and Economic Impact: The disfiguring effects of the disease can lead to social stigma and psychological stress for the affected individuals. It often hinders their ability to work and participate in community life, thereby impacting their livelihoods and the economy of the communities where the disease is prevalent.

Prevention and Treatment: Efforts to control lymphatic filariasis include mosquito control, mass drug administration to reduce transmission and treatment of individual cases. Medications like albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine are used to manage the infection. Additionally, care for chronic conditions such as lymphedema is crucial to improve the quality of life of affected individuals.

Global Health Efforts: The World Health Organization (WHO) and other global health bodies have initiated programs aimed at eliminating lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem. These efforts focus on interrupting transmission and providing care for those already infected.

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Southern Africa Mozambique MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Benin MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Zambia MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Eastern Africa Madagascar MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cote d'Ivoire MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Gabon MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Senegal MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Central Africa Cameroon MDA/PC coverage (Geographic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Tanzania (Zanzibar) MDA/PC coverage (Therapeutic coverage) 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
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Southern Africa Mozambique MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Eastern Africa Mauritius MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Cape Verde MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Sierra Leone MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Burundi MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Mali MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa The Gambia MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Algeria MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Republic of Congo MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Sao Tome & Principe MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Central Africa Cameroon MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Guinea MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Western Africa Nigeria MDA/PC rounds (Therapeutic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf
Southern Africa Namibia MDA/PC rounds (Geographic coverage) 2013 - 2020 Download map png Download map pdf Download map png Download map pdf

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